What is postmenopausal period?

Postmenopause is the time after menopause has occurred, starting when a woman has not had a period for 12 consecutive months.1 The postmenopausal stage is the third stage of menopausal transition which brings about a number of physical and emotional changes.2

How do the hormones change during postmenopause stage?

Before the menopause, a woman's ovaries produces most of the estrogen hormones (in the form of estradiol) in her body. During the perimenopause, her estrogen levels fall.3

In the postmenopause, estrone is quantitatively the most important circulating oestrogen hormone in her body. It is formed through the conversion of the hormone androstenedione (produced by her adrenal glands), to estrone.4

During the postmenopausal stage, some of the symptoms may improve or disappear. However, they may persist in some women. The common symptoms that can be seen in a postmenopausal woman are:4

Hot flushes

Night sweats


Mood changes

Low mood

Vaginal dryness

What are the risks associated with the postmenopausal stage?

A decrease in the hormone estrogen is related to various morbidities associated with menopause and the postmenopausal period. The incidence of certain conditions and disease such as oesteoporosis and cardiovascular disease is increased in postmenopausal women.4,5

  • References

    1. 1) NICE. Menopause: diagnosis and management. NG23. Available at: (accessed September 2021).
    2. 2) Rao SS, Singh M, Parkar M, Sugumaran R. Health maintenance for postmenopausal women. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Sep;78(5):583-91.
    3. 3) Women’s Health Concern (WHC) fact sheet. The menopause. Last accessed: September 2021.
    4. 4) Prelevic GM, Jacobs HS. Menopause and post-menopause. Bailliere’s Clinical Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jul 1;11(2):311-40.
    5. 5) Dalal PK, Agarwal M. Postmenopausal syndrome. Indian J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;57 Suppl 2:S222.


Femoston is a combination of 17β estradiol and dydrogesterone, which is indicated for postmenopausal women at least 6 months since last menses to provide relief from vasomotor symptoms.


Watch our menopause experts discuss the benefits of an individualised approach when it comes to HRT treatment.


Date of preparation: November 2021

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